By J'Nell Pate
Stockyards helped to set up a few of America’s maximum towns. Early at the scene have been stockyards in towns equivalent to Cincinnati, in a different way often called “Porkopolis,” and meat stockyards and packing powerhouse Chicago, which was once thought of the #1 farm animals marketplace within the country. Markets quickly opened within the Midwest and finally increased additional westward to California and Oregon.
Other smaller markets made huge contributions to the undefined. The cow cities of fortress worthy and Wichita by no means reached the prestige of Chicago yet did have huge farm animals receipts. castle worthy, for example, grew to become the most important horse and mule marketplace in 1915, as global warfare I produced an elevated call for for those animals.
Meatpacking moguls referred to as the large Four—Phillip Armour, Gustavus quick, Nelson Morris, and Edward Cudahy—usually financed those starting to be markets, managed the meatpacking company and, in flip, the stockyards businesses. even if the contributors replaced, this oligopoly remained intact for far of the period of the stockyards undefined. even though, as railways gave option to highways, the markets declined and so too did those moguls. via the top of the 20th century, nearly each significant marketplace closed, bringing an finish to the stockyard era.
J’Nell Pate’s exam of this period, the folks, and the markets themselves recounts an important a part of the background of America’s meat industry.
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Extra info for America's Historic Stockyards: Livestock Hotels
No one packer exerted monopolistic control. The situation resembled an oligopoly rather than a monopoly; the Big Four, and later a Big Five, dominated. )5 S TOC KYARDS “C OM PAN I E S ” E M E RG E 25 Mary Yeager, in her study of the meat-packing industry, concluded that in the first decade of the twentieth century the industry was oligopolistic and had been so for a quarter of a century. She contended that livestock marketing and processing entrepreneurs set out to cooperate as an oligopoly rather than to compete in a market environment that had a large capital investment for the large players.
17 Before the end of the 1920s, Armour created a company to hold all its shares of stock in the various stockyards companies over the country, calling the new corporation General Stockyards. 18 Thus in the 1920s and 1930s the Big Five began selling off their stockyards investments and their interests in railroads, cattle loan companies, banks, market newspapers, and similar facilities which they had owned at the markets. Packer Nelson Morris had died in 1907, and his sons chose to 36 A M E RICA’ S H I STORIC S TOC KYARDS : L IVE STOC K H OTE LS sell their father’s meat-packing plants rather than the stockyards interests, because they could not own both.
Joseph, Fort Worth, Denver, Kansas City, St. Louis, Omaha, Louisville, Newark, Milwaukee, Brighton, Portland, and Cleveland. In fact, the Big Five packers owned financial interests in twentyeight central markets and held an average of over eighty percent of the stock in each yard they controlled. The percentages ranged from twentythree at Philadelphia to total ownership of the yards in Denver. 15 Critics of federal regulation insisted that the government never proved that the degree of major packer ownership of the stockyards in which they operated, in and of itself, gave them a significant competitive advantage.
America's Historic Stockyards: Livestock Hotels by J'Nell Pate